Photo: OCHA/Jacob Zocherman

Total number of IDPs, 31 December 2020 (IDMC)

Photo credits: OCHA/Amy Martin

National Frameworks

The Sudanese government officially recognises IDPs’ rights and specific needs. A national policy on the matter was adopted in 2009, and the government’s Humanitarian Aid Commission (HAC) includes a dedicated unit for IDPs. The Government signed the Great Lakes Pact in 2006, but has not yet signed or ratified the Kampala Convention. The 2011 Doha Document for Peace in Darfur addresses the causes of displacement and refers specifically to compensation and the return of IDPs and refugees. The joint Sudan and South Sudan Solutions Initiative seek to strengthen national frameworks across Sudan and South Sudan.

National Practices

Solutions Initiative

Sudan, along with Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan and Uganda, is a member state of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) through which, launched in October 2020, the Solutions Initiative for Sudan and South Sudan was developed. The Solutions Initiative seeks to galvanize international support towards the early recovery and longer-term peacebuilding and resilience needs of over seven million internally displaced people, refugees and returnees as well as their host communities in the two countries. This effort aligns with the aims of the IGAD Nairobi Declaration, an agreement by IGAD member countries to pursue comprehensive regional approaches to deliver durable solutions for refugees while also maintaining protection and promoting self-reliance in countries of asylum. Since its launch, under the leadership of the governments of Sudan and South Sudan, national strategies and accompanying action plans have been developed and validated by a wide range of stakeholders. Refugees, internally displaced people, returnees and host communities were extensively included in national dialogues, ensuring that their needs and interests are included in the planning and management of these national processes. The result is significant progress on an inclusive regional strategy and action plan that is expected to inform the deliberations at the IGAD Special Summit of Heads of States and Governments scheduled for early 2022. Read more

Internally displaced persons informing durable solutions action plans

At the end of 2016, most of the assistance provided for IDPs in Sudan had sought to meet IDPs’ short to medium-term needs through separate and rarely coordinated projects by humanitarian, development and peacebuilding players. Although it saved lives, IDPs did not see any substantial improvement in their circumstances and remained largely reliant on assistance. Dwindling financial resources and new humanitarian crises in other parts of the world also made it increasingly challenging for the international community to sustain its level of assistance. Given these constraints, in late 2016, the Durable Solutions Working Group launched a pilot project to develop area-based durable solutions plans of action in two parts of Darfur: Um Dukhun, a rural location in Central Darfur, and El Fasher, an urban location in North Darfur. Rather than establishing a national durable solutions strategy, local- level plans of action would be used to develop joint humanitarian-development- peacebuilding programmes addressing the needs of a displacement-affected community as a whole using an “area-based approach”, be that area an informal settlement, a neighbourhood, village or town, and not just programmes for IDPs or refugee returnees alone. Read more

IDP Profiling in Sudan

Internal displacement dynamics in Sudan are complex and little multi-sectorial analysis exists on the situation of IDPs living in prolonged displacement or those newly displaced. Some IDPs undertake pendular movements, going back and forth between their places of refuge and origin, and seasonal migration is part of many communities’ traditional way of life. Many refugees have also returned from Chad. Data that can inform planning towards sustainable solutions is needed for all of these groups. In 2016, the Joint IDP Profiling Service received a support request from the office of the UN resident and humanitarian coordinator for Sudan to discuss the relevance of a profiling exercise that would identify opportunities and inform planning for durable solutions in the country. Read more

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