Somalia

Photo: UNICEF

Total number of IDPs, 31 December 2020 (IDMC)

Photo credits: IOM/Sanyu Osire


National Frameworks

In 2019, the Government established an inter-ministerial Durable Solutions Secretariat, ratified the Kampala Convention (a legally binding instrument that affirms the rights of IDPs in Africa) and approved a National Policy on Refugee-Returnees and Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs). The Somalia National Development Plan 2020 to 2024 pays significant attention to the rights of IDPs and prioritizes durable solutions to long-term displacement, while the National Durable Solutions Strategy 2020-2024 outlines the actions the Government is planning to take.

National Practices

Durable Solutions Initiative

In recognition of the complex challenges of protracted and urban displacement in Somalia and to promote a shift in how displacement is addressed in the country, the Federal Government of Somalia (FGS) and the Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary General, Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator (DSRSG/RC/HC) launched the Durable Solutions Initiative (DSI) in early 2016. The DSI is based on the premise that durable solutions to displacement can only be attained through strong government leadership and collective efforts from humanitarian, development and state/peace-building partners and with the inclusion of displacement-affected communities themselves. The DSI supports a principled collective approach to durable solutions by all relevant actors and guides the implementation of the Comprehensive Refugee Response Framework (CRRF) in Somalia and respective commitments made under the Nairobi Declaration and Action Plan in regards to the reintegration of refugee returnees in Somalia. Read more

Data and Analysis to Inform Collaborative Approaches to Finding Durable Solutions

Concerted efforts to address durable solutions for IDPs in Somalia began after 2012, with the official end of a severe famine that had displaced millions of Somalis and the inauguration of the new Federal Government of Somalia. The majority of data on internal displacement at that time was related to the movements of IDPs, with sectoral information collected by international humanitarian actors to inform their respective programming activities, often relying on satellite data. The Government and aid actors lacked baseline data to compare IDPs’ situations to the wider population, which complicated efforts to identify which protection and assistance needs were linked to displacement, as opposed to the challenges shared by the population at large. The Government also lacked national census data. As a first step towards addressing these data challenges, two profiling exercises were undertaken in Mogadishu and Hargeisa using a collaborative, participatory and transparent methodology to bring together government authorities, NGOs and UN entities, with technical support provided by the Joint IDP Profiling Service (JIPS) and REACH in order to generate a shared, empirical evidence-base to inform a durable solutions strategy for the cities. Read more

Exploring Land Value Sharing Options to Support Durable Solutions in Urban Areas

In 2019, the United Nations Integrated Office of the SRSG/RC/HC commissioned the report Towards Sustainable Urban Development in Somalia and IDP Durable Solutions at Scale. In particular, the report presents options for how Somalia’s urban municipalities could, with the support of the international community, utilize “land value sharing tools,” in long-term urban development processes to maximize urban land use, provide stronger tenancy rights for IDPs, and generate revenue to finance durable solutions for IDPs. Land-value sharing tools are based on the premise that the wider community, not just individual owners, should benefit when public investments, such as road construction and sewage systems, increase property values. Read more

The Midnimo Project’s Experiment in Integrated Humanitarian, Development and Peacebuilding Programming on Durable Solutions

The first of its kind in Somalia, the Midnimo (Unity) project began in December 2016 as a joint project between the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and UN-Habitat to strengthen local governance, find durable solutions for IDPs and refugee returnees, and improve social cohesion through integrated humanitarian, development and peacebuilding programming. Read more

Collective outcomes in Somalia

A collective outcome is a concrete and measurable result that humanitarian, development and other relevant actors aim to achieve jointly, usually over a period of three to five years, in a country to reduce people’s needs, risks and vulnerabilities and increase their resilience. In Somalia, a four collective outcomes have been agreed at the national level related to food insecurity, basic social services, climate-induced hazards and durable solutions. The durable solutions collective outcome aims that the: “risk and vulnerability reduced and resilience of internally displaced persons, refugee returnees and host communities strengthened in order to reach durable solutions for 100,000 displaced households by 2022”. The focus on solutions has created high-level political momentum in. the country and resulted in the March 2021 launch of the national Durable Solutions Strategy. Read more

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