Disclaimer: The designations employed on this map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the United Nations or its partners concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

The search for durable solutions to the protracted displacement situation in Eastern, Horn of Africa and the African region in general is a key humanitarian and development concern. This is a regional/cross border issue, dynamic and with a strong political dimension which demands a multi-sectorial response that goes beyond the existing humanitarian agenda.


Internal displacement in Ethiopia is driven by political violence, disputes over land and resources, inter-communal violence, armed conflict, and disasters (Analysis by IDMC). The situation has been made more severe after the Federal Government of Ethiopia launched a military offensive against Tigrayan – which has resulted in 2.1 million internally displaced people in Tigray, 250,000 internally displaced people in Amhara region and 112,000 in Afar region (UNHCR Regional Update #21: Ethiopia Situation (Tigray Region), 6 September 2021). The situation in the country is fast evolving. See the Ethiopia Country Practices page.


Niger’s population faces extreme vulnerability linked to food insecurity, desertification, limited social services, and insecurity, placing Niger at the bottom of the Human Development Index, while featuring the highest fertility rate. A conflict, which started in 2015, along the borders with Mali and Nigeria forced people to flee their homes. The combined forces of environmental degradation and scare resources trigger inter-communal tensions between pastoralists and farmers, which contributes to displacement (click to read more). The country experiences both flooding and drought, intensifying because of climate change, a key driver of internal displacement. See the Niger Country Practices page.


The drivers of internal displacement in Nigeria are multi-faceted, complex, and often overlapping. Since 2014, Boko Haram and other Non-State Armed Groups (NSAGs) have triggered significant displacement in the north-east of the country (click to read more). Flooding displaces hundreds of thousands of people during the rainy season, particularly in the coastal regions which are increasingly vulnerable to climate change (click to read more). About 60 per cent of IDPs live in host communities and 40 per cent live in camps (click to read more). See the Nigeria Country Practices page.


Internal displacement in Somalia is large scale, protracted and urbanized (Kelin & Walter, 2019). Driven by conflict, violence and acute food insecurity, Somalia remains at extreme risk of climate change, while COVID-19 continues to influence patterns of displacement. See the Somalia Country Practices page

South Sudan

In 2018, the Government of South Sudan undertook a process to domesticate the Kampala Convention, which culminated in the Protection and Assistance to Internally Displaced Persons Act 2019. The process to develop the draft law enabled IDPs to share new information with their respective communities. Read more.


As part of the efforts towards durable solutions for Darfur’s internally displaced people, the Government of Sudan, the United Nations Country Team and the wider international community represented by the Durable Solutions Working Group including UNDP, IOM, UNHCR, WFP, UNICEF, OCHA, UN-Habitat, INGO Steering Committee and donors) initiated a collaborative durable solutions profiling process in 2017. JIPS shares the results of the process in an interactive story map providing an overview of the key findings, and a comprehensive profiling report. Sudan adopted the IASC Framework on Durable Solutions for IDPs and operationalised it using the Interagency Durable Solutions Indicator Library and Analysis Guide. Read more.